ELI Computer Lab Class: Week 7 – Spaced Repetition Rehearsal

Hello!

This week’s post will highlight the importance of testing yourself when studying. It also contains useful resources.

To remember things, test yourself!

Using flashcards is a good way to test yourself. Photo: k4dordy, CC BY 2.0
Using flashcards is a good way to test yourself. Photo: k4dordy, CC BY 2.0

Vocabulary can be very difficult to learn and remember. The problem is that there is just so much vocabulary! To become a fluent speaker of academic or professional English, you need to know several thousand words. How can anyone remember that many words?

Scientists who study memory have found that the best way to remember information for a long time is to practice recalling or retrieving it. In other words, when studying, you should test yourself and prove that you can remember the information you need. You should not simply look at a vocabulary list or re-read a book chapter; you need to test yourself for effective studying.

Take a look at this experimental result from Karpicke and Roediger (2008), The Critical Importance of Retrieval for Learning:

Source
Source

In the experiment above, four groups of college students learned 40 vocabulary words from a foreign language. In two of the groups, the students studied the vocabulary by testing themselves over and over. In the other two groups, the students did not study by testing themselves: after they learned the words, one group reviewed the word list by looking at it, and the other group didn’t review it at all. After one week, the groups who studied by testing themselves remembered about 32/40 words, while the other groups remembered only about 14/40 words. Pretty impressive difference!

How can you test yourself when studying a language like English? If you need to learn and remember thousands of words, how can you find enough time to study? Well, living in an English-speaking country is a great way to accomplish this goal! All day, you need to speak to people in English and read signs in English. This constantly tests your English and forces you to remember the vocabulary you know.

Not everyone can go to an English speaking country, though. In addition, you will probably return home someday to a non-English speaking country. So what else can people do to practice lots of vocabulary?

Spaced Repetition Rehearsal Software

There are several computer programs designed to help you study vocabulary by testing yourself. A typical program uses digital flashcards. The program will analyze your correct and incorrect answers to determine which words you know well and which words you don’t know well. The program will test you often on words you don’t know well, and it will only rarely test you on words it thinks you know well.

The chart below demonstrates how this works. When you first learn a word, you are likely to forget it quickly unless you practice it soon (light blue line), so the program will test you on that word one or two days later (FIRST REMINDER). If you remember it successfully, your memory becomes stronger, so you will remember the word longer (red line). The program will now wait about a week before testing you again (SECOND REMINDER)… And then a month or two (THIRD REMINDER, FOURTH REMINDER)… And eventually, years! This is called spaced repetition, because the space becomes longer between each repetition of the vocabulary word.

Source
Source

By using software like this to study, you can confidently remember thousands of vocabulary words!

WARNING

These programs are perfect for studying and memorizing lots of vocabulary, which is very helpful for listening and reading. However, flashcards typically do not help you to improve your pronunciation, grammar, fluency, organization, or other important speaking and writing skills. Vocabulary is important, but it is not the only thing you should focus on! Practicing speaking and writing in English is always important, too.

Spaced Repetition Rehearsal software

  • Anki is one of the most popular SRS flashcard program right now. You can use it on your computer, a smartphone, or a web browser. The iPhone app costs money, but other features are free.
  • Mnemosyne is the program that I used to use when I was a university student. It is also free.
  • SuperMemo is a non-free program that was first developed in 1987 and is still updated today. Its creator, Piotr Wozniak, invented the idea of spaced repetition rehearsal software.
  • Quizlet.com is a (mostly) free website which helps you practice vocabulary in many ways. Their “Long-Term Learning” mode is based on space repetition, and even their “Learn” mode now incorporates some aspects of spaced repetition.

Full-class review games using students’ smartphones (Three Rivers TESOL Fall Conference 2017)

Hello, Three Rivers TESOL Fall Conference 2017!

My presentation is about two free websites that enable teachers to run full-class review games: Quizlet and Kahoot.


Quizlet.com is a free website that hosts millions of sets of student- and teacher-created flash cards—but in addition to studying your material as flash cards, you can play various games and do other types of learning and studying.

For example, here is a study set that I created for one of my classes recently:

https://quizlet.com/216332939/real-reading-1-chapters-1-12-flash-cards/

Quizlet Live is a new game mode offered by Quizlet.com. It’s a team game designed to be played in the classroom. Students work in groups of 3 or 4 and are incentivized to answer carefully and to discuss and collaborate with each other. Slow and steady wins the race.

Try out a demo of the Quizlet Live game here to see how it works: https://quizlet.com/livedemo

Setting up a Quizlet Live activity:

  1. Log into Quizlet.com. (This is a mandatory step!)
  2. Go to your Account Settings page and make sure you are in the system as a Teacher, not as a Student (you only need to do this one time):
  3. Open any Quizlet card set (or create your own).
  4. Click on the “LIVE” button on the card set you wish to play Quizlet Live with.
  5. Click the “Create Game” button.
  6. Instruct students to take out their phones (or other internet-connected devices) and go to quizlet.live (note that the address is .live and is NOT the same as quizlet.com).
  7. Instruct students to enter the six-digit join code and enter their names.
  8. After all students have joined the game, click the buttons on the screen to run the game.

Kahoot! is a review game somewhat similar to Quizlet Live, except that Kahoot! is a highly competitive game that incentivizes students to answer as quickly as possible.

Here is an example game I created: https://play.kahoot.it/#/?quizId=7228ff7e-8610-443d-8927-4293cc26139e

Setting up a Kahoot! activity:

  1. Create an account at kahoot.com
  2. Under “Create new Kahoot!”, choose “Quiz”
  3. Complete the form (title, description, etc.) and click the “Ok, go” button
  4. Click the “Add question” button to create your first question.
  5. Type your question and set the time limit / points options.
  6. Type up to four answer choices in the boxes near the bottom of the screen.
  7. Click on the checkmark next to an answer to mark it as correct. (You may mark more than one answer correct.)
  8. Click “Next” at the top right of the screen to go back to your quiz.
  9. Either…
    1. Click the “Add question” button to add another question
    2. Click the green “Save” button at the top right of the screen to save your quiz
  10. After you click “Save”, you are given options to edit, preview, play, or share your new Kahoot quiz.

Running a Kahoot! activity:

  1. Click on the “My Kahoots” button near the top-left of the page. (If you don’t see the “My Kahoots” button, try clicking the purple button with three lines near the top-right of the screen.
  2. Click the “Play” button next to the Kahoot! quiz you want to run in class.
  3. Choose either “Classic” or “Team mode”, and set any other game options you wish to use. (One popular game option is “Randomize order of answers”, for example.)
  4. Make sure students can see your computer screen via the classroom projector/monitor.
  5. Instruct your students to go to kahoot.it (not .com) on their phones, mobile devices, or laptops. Instruct them to type in the game-pin which has appeared on the classroom screen.
  6. Click “Start” when everyone is ready.
  7. Enjoy! After the activity, you can download all students’ answers from the “My results” section of the website (click on your username at the top right of the webpage).

ELI Computer Lab Class: Week 6 – Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL)

The Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL) is a very popular website which American university students use to improve their academic writing. In addition to hundreds of resources and references about academic and professional writing, OWL has a specific section for ESL students:

ESL Instructors and Students page of OWL
ESL Instructors and Students page of OWL

Here are just a few examples OWL’s hundreds of resources:

I have used OWL many times to help me improve my writing, and I’m sure it will help you, too. Check it out!

ELI Computer Lab Class: Week 5 – Online Pronunciation Practice

Hello, ELI Computer Lab Class students! The focus of this week’s resources is pronunciation.


The Sounds of American English
The Sounds of American English

The Sounds of American English is a phonetics website run by the University of Iowa. On the website, you can see pictures, videos, and animated diagrams of how to pronounce each of the sounds of American English.


Ship or Sheep
Ship or Sheep

Ship or Sheep is a simple website designed to help you practice minimal pairs, which are pairs of sounds that are very similar to each other. For example, ‘t’ and ‘d’ are very similar to each other. They are only different in one way: ‘t’ is voiceless and ‘d’ is voiced.


Rachel's English
Rachel’s English

Rachel’s English is a popular YouTube channel focused on English language learning. It is especially well known for its pronunciation videos. You can see a list of video topics here. For example, there is a set of videos all about the flap ‘t’, which is the small, short ‘d’ sound Americans pronounce in the middle of words like “water” and “butter.”


I hope you enjoy these resources! There are hundreds of other websites, podcasts, YouTube channels, and so on which focus on English pronunciation, so let me know in the comments what you favorites are!