Outside the classroom: The ugly truth about the gaming world


This post is more personal than my usual fare. I feel the topic matter is important enough to justify this diversion from edtech-focused, classroom-oriented content.

On a number of occasions on this blog, we’ve talked about the potential that video games have as tools for learning and engagement:

All of these posts focus either on single-player experiences or else local multi-player experiences done under the supervision of a teacher. And there’s a reason for that.

The gaming world—and in particular, “gaming culture”—is a warty, pimply mess struggling to make it through its own ugly adolescence.

According to a recent report, an equal number of men and women purchase video games. The stereotypical “gamer” is a teenage boy, but active gamers who are adult women outnumber teen boy gamers more than two to one. In particular, the number of women aged 50 or over who play video games increased by 32% from 2012 to 2013.

So… In a world in which nearly half of gamers are women, and in which video games pull in revenues comparable to Hollywood films, why do big-budget companies cater almost exclusively to white, heterosexual male power fantasies and regurgitate misogynistic stereotypes with such ubiquity? Why not address the huge market of women and minority gamers?

That’s bad enough, but the white men who cling most fervently to the label of “gamer” promote—whether actively or passively—a racist, homophobic, transphobic, and misogynistic environment. This is true all the way down to the level of casual online X-Box gaming and all the way up to professional, corporate-sponsored tournaments with paid participants.

The protagonists of Left 4 Dead 2. From left to right: Nick, Rochelle, Coach, and Ellis.
The protagonists of Left 4 Dead 2. From left to right: Nick, Rochelle, Coach, and Ellis.

The level of venom and irrational hatred is almost unimaginable—unless you witness it.

Valve, one of the more progressive game development studios, is known for its inclusion of strong, resourceful, and resilient female characters and people of color in its games. One title, Left 4 Dead 2, is a cooperative multiplayer game which includes four protagonists: two white men, one black man, and one black woman. Each character is played by one human player, and no character may be selected by more than one person.

Depressingly, you can likely imagine the outcome in an online multiplayer gaming context: most people lunge to select one of the two white men. There may be some occasional grumbling from the player who ends up in the role of the black man, but the true venom is reserved for the black woman character. It doesn’t happen in every game, but uncomfortably often, a white man assigned to the role of the black woman would simply quit the game rather than proceed. This refusal to adopt a black, female persona would sometimes be accompanied by horrible invective spewed over the built-in voice chat—”F— no, I’m not playing some n—– b—-!”

I got into the habit of always picking the black woman character myself so that other players wouldn’t get an opportunity to indulge in their bigotry. Still, Left 4 Dead 2 was one of the last multiplayer games I ever played. The ubiquity of sexism and racism boiling under the surface of the multiplayer gaming community was more or less hidden from me when everything was just aliens and space marines, but once I saw how many gamers were loud, unrepentant bigots when faced merely with the prospect of playing as a black woman character for an hour or two, I couldn’t stomach the idea of associating with them any longer. I stopped assuming that my fellow players were basically good people and could never quite shake the feeling that any given teammate might be ready to spout off some vomitous bigotry at any moment.

I quit the world of multiplayer online gaming.

An advertisement for the Running of the Gnomes, an annual charity event benefiting breast cancer research run by Lauren's World of Warcraft guild
An advertisement for the Running of the Gnomes, an annual charity event benefiting breast cancer research run by Lauren’s World of Warcraft guild

Other people use different strategies to avoid the soul-sucking poison of bigotry that lies under the surface of the gaming world. For example, a colleague of mine, Lauren, who has previously written on this blog, conducted ethnographic and sociolinguistic research in World of Warcraft, which is a persistent online role-playing game with millions of players. Players in that game can form “guilds”, which act as a kind of club or social network through which cooperative game sessions can be arranged and enjoyed. Lauren’s guild had strict rules against the use of misogynistic, homophobic, transphobic, or racist language and didn’t hesitate to kick out members who violated these moral principles. As such, the guild was able to construct a safe space for women, as well as for racial and sexual minorities.

Another admirable class of tenacious individuals works to actively change the culture of the gaming world by making the kinds of inclusive games they’ve always wanted to play themselves.

One example of a progressive game development studio is the Fullbright Company, of which half the members are women and half the members are in a sexual minority. A recent post in an online community for feminist men asked where women could find men with feminist beliefs. The top-rated response was, “in our rooms playing gone home“—referring to a lovely game by the Fullbright Company which I, too, thoroughly enjoyed. The game, which is set in the 1990s, has a young woman protagonist who is trying to find out why her gay little sister has gone missing. The soundtrack is full of contemporary music from the riot grrrl movement. It’s a far cry from the dime-a-dozen violent beefcake fantasies such as, well, Far Cry, and the change of pace is a welcome one.

Outside of the world of developers, media critics such as Anita Sarkeesian (above) have been working diligently to document problematic aspects of the gaming world and bring these issues to the attention of both game developers and gamers themselves. Anita’s most recent video, Women as Background Decoration: Part 2 – Tropes vs Women in Video Games, is a widely-acclaimed look into the ways in which many big-budget video games use women as empty, sexualized window dressing, and—more distressing than that—how sexualized violence against women is used to titillate male audiences.

The trope may be summed up with the gut-punching image below, which was an actual mass-produced advertisement for a video game:

Advertisement for Hitman: Blood Money which places a violently-murdered woman's body in a position intended to titillate and arouse the viewer
Advertisement for Hitman: Blood Money which places a violently-murdered woman’s body in a position intended to titillate and arouse the viewer

The backlash against Anita’s observations has been depressingly predictable, but no less shocking and horrifying for its predictability. The prominent industry figures such as Tim Schafer who endorse her work get off easy with just a stream of hateful and profane protests, but Anita herself has had her life threatened. She recently shared the deeply disturbing rape and death threats issued by a stalker who tracked down her home address. It should be read from bottom to top, not from top to bottom:

Death threats issued to Anita Sarkeesian. Source: https://twitter.com/femfreq/status/504718160902492160/photo/1
Death threats issued to Anita Sarkeesian. Source: https://twitter.com/femfreq/status/504718160902492160/photo/1

It’s stomach-turning. I considered putting the image behind a cut, but honestly, that would just provide a bit of courtesy and privacy to the stalker making the death threats. It’s wrong to censor others’ crimes, especially when those crimes are motivated by bigotry.

I absolutely repudiate the shamefully bigoted aggression perpetuated, abetted, or tolerated by so many in the gaming community, and I want to help stop it. I could be doing more than just boosting the signal and bringing heightened exposure to these issues, but it’s hard to know where to start.

I suppose I’d like to think that encouraging the incorporation of educationally-appropriate mass-market video games (Minecraft, Kerbal Space Program, etc) into the classroom will help to cultivate a new generation of gamers who don’t think of playing games as being a “boy thing.” I’d like to think that boys who grow up playing games alongside girl classmates won’t be as likely to harass and torment women or minority gamers later in life. I’d like to think that girls and minorities who grow up playing games in the classroom can internalize the message that they are valid participants in that space and that no one has the right to exclude them from it.

But that’s awfully distant, hand-wavy stuff.

What can we do right now?


Efficiency is overrated: the importance of resilience in classroom tech


As excited as I get about the possibilities of new technologies and cloud services, one lesson I’ve never allowed myself to forget is the importance of contingency planning. All the efficiency in the world is worth nothing if you don’t also have resilience.

For example, videorecording is incredibly efficient and effective. In principle, on days during which my students give speeches, I could just set up a videorecorder on a tripod, hit the “Record” button, and walk out for the day. However, if the recorder failed, I would be completely unable to assess my students’ performance! There’s no resilience in that setup. So when I do videorecord important student speeches, I use two video recording devices while simultaneously taking fastidious notes. (I also used to have an audio recorder going at the same time, but even I had to admit that that was overkill!)

Current case in point: an ELI student has to give an important presentation later today, but his USB drive containing his PowerPoint file failed. A teacher sent him to me to see what help I could give him. Upon plugging in the USB drive, I saw that the file allocation table had likely been damaged, because the system was unable to mount the drive despite being able to detect it.

I reformatted the drive and began running Recuva on it. As I type this, the process is 54% complete, with an estimated time left of 10 minutes. Here’s the screenshot I took a bit earlier:

There are no guarantees, but Recuva is pretty darn good at rooting out lost files.
There are no guarantees, but Recuva is pretty darn good at rooting out lost files.

Hopefully we’ll be able to get this student up and running! All of his files will be jumbled up and possibly unnamed, but with a bit of luck, we’ll at least be able to find the PowerPoint file.

So to go back to my original point: using a single USB drive is pretty darn efficient, but it’s not so resilient. If I were in that student’s shoes, I would have copied the presentation onto two USB flash drives; I would have made it available online, preferably accessible via a bit.ly URL; and as a last resort, I would have paper handouts of the slides ready to go as well. Tap-dancing due to technical issues is never pleasant, but if you make sure to plan resiliently, you’ll have the peace of mind of knowing that if Plan A doesn’t work, you still have Plans B and C to fall back on.

(Incidentally, this topic reminds me of one of the most embarrassing moments of my grad student career: I made a mistake while photocopying my handout for a presentation. The original printed copy was two-sided, but I absent-mindedly set the photocopier to “one-sided to two-sided” mode, effectively deleting half of my handout’s pages! And the first I knew of it was when someone in my audience raised their hand and said there was a problem with the handout. I learned a big lesson that day: always, always double-check your handouts!)


Postscript: The ending to this story wasn’t as happy as I’d hoped it would be. I was able to recover tons of files, but they were all images, videos, and sound files. Recuva did not detect any PowerPoints or other documents. Oh well.


What kind of dentist do I see for Bluetooth-aches, anyway?

What was so bad about good old wired connections, anyway? Photo: Library of the London School of Economics and Political Science, public domain
What was so bad about wired connections, anyway? Photo: Library of the London School of Economics and Political Science, public domain

I love Android, but it’s so darn finicky.

To be fair, most of the issues I run into can be blamed on the fact that I like to modify devices and run custom software on them, but I only take it so far. I only run major, stable releases of CyanogenMod, which is the most popular community-supported distribution of Android. And my phone model (Galaxy S3) is one of the most popular Android devices of all time, so that helps to guarantee an above-average level of software support and performance.

Above average isn’t perfect, though!

After running an update recently, I realized that my Bluetooth headphones’ “Play/Pause” button was now only being interpreted as a “Play” button, meaning I couldn’t pause anything. After a bit of research, I found instructions on what to change in a specific system configuration file (/system/usr/keylayout/AVRCP.kl) to fix how the system handles Bluetooth input. Of course, if the phone weren’t rooted, I’d have been out of luck entirely.

On top of that, I realized today that whenever LTE service is available, the phone simply cannot connect to the network anymore. It tries to, but it just hangs indefinitely. I had to force it into no-LTE, CDMA-only mode to at least get a 3G connection in the meantime. I’ll have to flash a new modem on the phone to see if that clears up the issue.

Update: It turns out the LTE problem was carrier-specific. Flashing a custom APN XML file cleared up the issue.

Oh, Android.


My foray into the world of smartphone/tablet repair


My Nexus 7 repair didn’t work, but I have the feeling that the tablet was already water damaged beyond hope. It’s possible that a new battery might revive it, but I’m not confident enough in those odds to want to invest in the cost of a brand new battery. They’re quite pricey.

However, I did just successfully replace the battery of an iPhone 5! So that’s good. It was a multi-step process involving a fair bit of disassembly, but everything went according to plan. Getting the old battery out was quite difficult due to the strong adhesive bonding it to the shell of the phone, but after a few minutes of prying, I was able to peel it out.

In retrospect, I probably ought to have taken some photos of the process– but I was primarily focused on just getting the procedure right!

These are the items I picked up recently for working on small devices, including this iPhone repair:

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The bit set is nice for its inclusion of a plastic spudger and pentalobe bits, but the Phillips-head bits don’t run small enough. I still have to use a glasses repair kit to deal with the smallest of screws.

For the second item– I didn’t know that magnetic project work surface mats existed, but now that I own one, I love it. The idea is that you place individual sets of screws/etc grouped together within the frames, then label what they are using a dry-erase marker. The weak magnetic surface keeps stuff from sliding or rolling away. I actually used to do the same thing using pieces of paper or (perhaps bizarrely) our stovetop, since the stove surface is pure white and works well with dry-erase markets.

The magnetic wand has been a lifesaver. It’s crucial for picking up (or finding, period!) the kinds of microscopically tiny screws used in smartphones and tablets.

The ESD wrist strap is kind of basic IT equipment, but I’d never bothered to buy one before.

And the head-mounted magnifier is something I’d originally picked up for soldering, but it occasionally has its uses in working on tiny devices, too.

(One more thing: it’s good to have a strong suction cup. I used one half of the Orbit smartphone mount set, since the ball provides a great, sturdy place to grip while prising a screen off, but can then act as a kickstand to keep the screen readily accessible and easy to grab.)

I would LOVE to get the iFixit Pro Tech Toolkit:

But I really can’t justify it, given how rarely I actually crack open the shell of a device! All that other equipment listed up above COMBINED only costs HALF of what one Pro Tech Toolkit costs. It’s a shame.